Full Form of Networking Terms (Short Descriptions)

किसी भी परीक्षा की आप तैयारी कर रहे हो , लेकिन यह नेटवर्किंग फुल फार्म आप को कही न कही पूछ ही ली जाती है जोकि आप को यह पहले से ही याद रहना चाहिए , यूजीसी में अक्सर यह प्रश्न पूछे जाते है ।

Full Form of Networking Terms (Short Descriptions)

AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port. This bus is developed for fast video cards. It is currently up to 4X mode speed.

API – Application Programming Interface.

ARCnet – Attached Resource Computer Network is an architecture using star and bus topology.

ARP – Address resolution Protocol is used to resolve the hardware address of a card to package the ethernet data. It works at the data link layer. RFC 826.

 AU – Access Unit provides access to resources like fax, telex, and teletex.

Backbone – Main cable used to connect computers on a network.

Bandwidth – Indicates the amount of data that can be sent in a time period. Measured in Mbps which is one million bits per second.

Baseband – Data bits are defined by discrete signal changes.

BDC – Backup Domain Controller is a backup for a PDC

 BGP – Border Gateway Protocol, a dynamic routing protocol. RFC 1267.

BNC – British Naval Connector.

BOOTP – Boot Protocol. RFC 951, 1542.

Broadband – Uses analog signals to divide the cable into several channels with each channel at its own frequency. Each channel can only transmit one direction.

Broadcast – A transmission to all interface cards on the network.

network   Brouter – Will function similar to a bridge for  transport protocols that are not routable, and will function as a router for routable protocols.

CDMA – Code division multiple access allows transmission of voice and data over a shared part of radio frequencies. This is also called spread spectrum.

CHAP – Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol is a three way handshake protocol which is considered more secure than PAP.

CIDR – Classless Inter Domain Routing.

Client – This computer requests resources for its use from a computer that provides the resource (a server).

CSMA/CD – Carrier-sense multiple-access with collision detection for controlling access to the network media.

Datagram – IP header and what is called a message or segment. The message or segment is a transport header (TCP or UDP) and application data. The term datagram is used to describe the information before IP fragmentation or after reassembly.

DBMS – Database Management Systems are used to share data on a network.

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used to assign IP addresses dynamically to network cards works at the application layer. RFC 1541.

DNS – Domain Name System is used on the internet to correlate between IP address and readable names. RFC 1034, 1035, 1535-1537, 1591.

EGP – Exterior Gateway Protocol. Used between routers of different systems.

EIGRP – Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol integrates the base capabilities of link-state protocols with distance vector protocols capabilities.

Ethernet – A network architecture that uses carrier-sense multiple-access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) for controlling access to the network media and baseband broadcasts. It uses star topology.

FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface is a network architecture normally used to send longer distances. Topology is ring with two counter rotating rings for reliability with no hubs. Cable type is fiber-optic.

Frame – The unit of transmission in a link layer protocol.

FTP – File Transport Protocol is a TCP/IP protocol running at the application layer.

Gateway – A gateway can translate information between different network data formats or network architectures.

HTML – Hypertext Markup Language is the format many files for web viewing are in. It is a language with “mark-up” text included for formatting.

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the protocol used to communicate between web servers and web browser software clients.

Hub – A type of repeater used on several network architectures which usually connects several stations.

IAB – Internet Architecture Board

IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol is used to perform network error reporting and status. It works at the transport layer. RFC 792.

IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force. Sets Internet technical standards.

IGMP – Internet Group Management Protocol, used for managing multicast groups. RFC 1112.

IMAP4 – Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4 is the replacement for POP3

Infrared – Infrared is just below the visible range of light between 100Ghz and 1000Thz.

Internetwork – Several subnets connected together using routers.

Intranet – Refers to using internet technologies such as a web server on an internal network.

IP – Internet Protocol so used for software addressing of computers and works at the data link layer. RFC 791.

IPSec – Internet protocol security, developed by IETF, implemented at layer 3.

IRQ- Interrupt Request

IRTF – Internet Research Task force.

ISA – Industry Standard Architecture internal computer bus. Used when the original 8088 8bit microprocessor based personal computers were produced. (16 bit).

ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network is a method of sending voice and data information on a digital phone line. Two 64Kbps B-channels with one 16Kbps D channel is provided with basic ISDN service

ISP – Internet Service Provider

FTP – File Transfer Protocol.

L2TP – Layer 2 tunneling protocol (RFC 2661). Used for VPN tunneling.

LAN – Local Area Network

Link – Connects two network devices. Implemented by the data link layer.

LLC – Logical link control is the interface between the lower and upper layer networking protocols.

MAC – Media Access Control address. Basically a network card unique hardware address.

MAN- Metropolitan area network refers to a network which connects several LANS over various media that is large enough to cover an area the size of a city.

MAPI – Microsoft’s Messaging API which is incorporated throughout Microsoft’s office products supports mail at the application level.

Media – The hardware method used to connect computers over a network. The three main types are copper cable, fiber optic cable, and wireless.

Message – The unit of transmission in a transport layer protocol. A TCP segment is a message which consists of a transport protocol header followed by application data.

Multicasting – Transmitting to a group of interface cards on the network.

NAT – Network Address Translation.

NetBEUI – NetBIOS Extended User Interface works at the transport layer and provides data transportation.

NetBIOS – Network Basic Input Output System by Microsoft.

Network Operating System – Typically used to run computers that act as servers, but may be used on various types of computers today.

NFS – Network File System. A protocol that allows UNIX and Linux systems remotely mount each other’s file systems. RFC 1094

NIC – Network interface card. Also called LAN adapters.

NNTP – Network News Transport Protocol is used to link newsgroups for discussions on the web

OSI – Open Systems Interconnect is a suite of protocols developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) which corresponds with the layers of the OSI model.

OSPF – Open Shortest Path First, a dynamic routing protocol. RFC 1247.

Packet – Includes an IP header and data. It may be a complete IP datagram or a fragment of an IP datagram.

PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect internal computer bus. The popular expansion bus of choice. It is significantly faster than EISA. This is a 32/64bit bus with plug and play capability..

PDC – Primary Domain Controller is an NT server providing central control of user access permissions and accounts on a network.

PAP – Password Authentication Protocol is a two way handshake protocol designed for use with PPP.

Peer – A computer that can act as both a client and a server.

POP3 – Post Office Protocol version 3 is used by clients to access an internet mail server to get mail. It is not a transport layer protocol.

Protocol – A set of standards sets of standards that define all operations within a network. There are various protocols that operate at various levels of the OSI network model such as transport protocols include TCP, SPX.

PPP – Point to Point Protocol, used for serial connections to a network ot the internet. (RFC 1332, 1548)

PPTP – Point to point tunneling protocol (RFC 2637) Used for VPN tunneling.

RADIUS – Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service is used for dial in clients to connect to other computers or a network. It provides authentication and accounting when using PPTP or L2TP tunneling.

RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive disks is a fault tolerant method of storing data, meaning that a failure can occur and the system will still function.

RARP -Reverse Address Resolution Protocol used for diskless computers to determine their IP address using the network. It works at the data link layer. RFC 903.

Redirector – it runs on a windows operating system and directs requests for network resources to the appropriate server and makes network resources seem to be local resources.

Repeater – Used on a network to regenerate signals to be sent over long distances or tie computers together on a network.

RIP – Routing Information Protocol, a dynamic routing protocol. A distance-vector algorithm is used to calculate the best route for a packet. RFC 1058, 1388 (RIP2).

Rlogin – Remote login between UNIX hosts. This is outdated and is replaced by Telnet.

Router – Routes data packets between two networks. It reads the information in each packet to tell where it is going.

RPC – Remote Procedure Call. A protocol invented by Sun Microsystem to allow remote computers to invoke functions on other hosts. RFC 1057.

Segment – The unit of end-to-end transmission in the TCP protocol which consists of a TCP header followed by application data.

Server – For the most part it provides resources on the network for other computers to use.

SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a TCP protocol for mail transport running at the application layer. RFC 821, 822.

SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol. RFC 1155, 1157, 1213, 1441

SQL – Structured Query Language is a database access language. It is used by most client/server database applications.

Subnet – A part of a network. A class B network may have several class C subnets. Usually routers are used to connect subnets.

TCP – Transport Control protocol is a connection oriented reliable protocol working at the transport layer. RFC 793.

Telnet – Remote session at the application layer. RFC 854.

Thicknet – Half inch rigid cable. Maximum cable length is 500 meters. Transmission speed is 10Mbps. Expensive and is not commonly used. (RG-11 or RG-8).

Thinnet – Thinnet uses a British Naval Connector (BNC) on each end. Thinnet is part of the RG- 58 family of cable*. Maximum cable length is 185 meters. Transmission speed is 10Mbps.

Token Ring – A network architecture developed by IBM which sends tokens around a ring of computers to allow media access. Standardized to IEEE 802.5

Topology – The shape of the physical connection of a network with regard to repeaters and networked computers. The three main types are ring, bus, and star.

Unicast – A transmission to a single interface card.

URL – Universal Resource Relocator is a term used to describe the name of a web based resource such as a web page or location of a file for down loading.

UTP – Unshielded Twisted Pair cable. Normally UTP contains 8 wires or 4 pair. 100 meter maximum length. 4-100 Mbps speed.

VPN – Virtual Private Networking. The function of VPN is to allow two computers or networks to talk to each other over a transport media that is not secure, but the network is made secure by VPN security protocols.

WAN – Wide Area Network is larger than a MAN and may be an enterprise network or a global network.

WINS – Windows Internet Name Service is the Microsoft implementation of NetBIOS name service.

XML – Extensible Markup Language is a subset of SGML and is used widely on the web.